This thesis expanded our understanding of the autecology and … Many dinoflagellates are encased in interlocking plates of cellulose with two perpendicular flagella that fit into the grooves between the cellulose plates. Mixotrophic dinoflagellates are organisms with photosynthetic capacity but also ingest nutrients from outside simultaneously. Nutritional modes of dinoflagellates can vary from autotrophic to mixotrophic whereby photosynthetic cells may be phagotrophic—even on other dinoflagellates (Kimor, 1981; Gaines & Elbrächter, 1987). Photosynthetic dinoflagellates form one of the largest group of eukaryotic algae apart from diatoms. Dinoflagellates exhibit extensive morphological diversity and can be photosynthetic, heterotrophic, or mixotrophic. Do dinoflagellates contain bright yellow pigments or can they be both photosynthetic and heterotrophic or many species are luminescent or possess pillbox-shaped cell walls of silica? The story is reverse with dinoflagellates. Dinoflagellates have characteristics of both plants and animals. They can be either photosynthetic autotrophs or heterotrophs, and they normally reproduce asexually unless conditions are unfavorable. Not all dinoflagellates are authotrophs, some are heterotrophic. Cyst produced by both autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates generally respond positively to upwelling in the basin. Dinoflagellates can be extremely numerous, with concentrations being measured up to 30,000 individuals per cubic millimeter. Dinoflagellates are therefore an important source of food in certain ecosystems. It was fre- quently unclear whether a given species was an auto- or a heterotroph, and thus it was necessary to examine the cells for the presence of chlorophyll. Some are photosynthetic autotrophs and some species are heterotrophs, which get their nutrients by phagocytosis. Most certainly, they have an autotrophic ancestor. 0 Inter-Research 1995 Many studies indicate that heterotrophic dinoflagellates require higher concentrations of prey than are normally present in the open ocean. Dinoflagellates. Dinoflagellates are unicellular protists found floating in bodies of fresh or saltwater. Marine thecate heterotrophic dinoflagellates likely play an important role in the consumption of primary productivity and in the trophic structure of the plankton, yet we know little about these species. Heterotrophic species can have specialized structures, such as peduncles, used in … The facultative or amphitropic mixotrophic dinoflagellates are those that can only perform heterotrophic nutrition or only autotrophic nutrition according to environmental conditions. of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the ecosystem of the Gulf of Gdansk by estimating their biomass and com- paring it with the biomass of other plankters. There are more than 4500 species of dinoflagellates. 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